Japanese maples are lovely plants that can brighten up any garden, and the leaves of different kinds and subspecies of these fantastic plants have a wide range of colors. However, when planting this gorgeous miracle and caring for it, it is critical to consider a number of its fundamental characteristics. Only in this manner can the health, grandeur, and beauty of these magnificent Japanese “guests” be ensured.
Features of Japanese maples
In terms of the overall description of the Japanese red-leaved maple, it should be noted that this is a collective name. This name actually encompasses a wide range of species native to Japan and South Korea.
The Sapindov family includes maples (genus maple). There are around 150 types, some of which have spread into our territories from Southeast Asia.
If you don’t have time for seeds, buy seedlings, which should be carefully monitored for disease presence and strength during the planting season. Weak seedlings do not generally take root.
Seedlings look like competent and cautious planting, taking into account all of the characteristics of this fragile plant.
It is vital to select non-alkaline soils with low humidity and minimal water stagnation. Drainage of the earth is required.
It is preferable to select a planting location with modest shade yet periodic direct sunshine penetration.
The actual moment of landing is regarded as the avoidance of drafts. Planting maples at walls, or hedges, or covering them with coniferous plants is required.
Because the crowns of the clones are fairly expansive, if you plant a number of seedlings, they should be planted at a distance of 2-3 m apart.
Basic landing rules:
The planting hole should be double the depth of the seedling’s root system.
We plan drainage;
Sand should be added to clay soil.
We immerse the seedling for around 15 minutes in the rooting fluid.
then we place it in the hole, carefully straightening the roots;
sprinkle the previously prepared soil mixture (earth, peat, and compost);
we make out the barrel circle, tamping it;
fertilizers are applied the next day;
mulch the barrel circle.
Because it is native to the East, where climatic conditions are softer and warmer, the Japanese maple is not considered unsophisticated in plant maintenance. As a result, growing it in open land in Russia is a difficult task. You can care for the plant according to a certain plan.
Watering. You must water frequently and abundantly. Precipitation and weather conditions are used to calculate volume. The barrel circle cannot be allowed to dry out. At the same time, it must be ensured that the water does not become stagnant. It is advised to irrigate the crown with warm water in very hot weather in the evenings.
Dressing on top. The plant is definitely not averse to nutrient-rich soils, thus it is fed with complex fertilizers provided both after planting and on a regular basis. It is desirable if nitrogen is not included in the additional chemicals.
Mulching is a required process because it stops the trunk circle from drying up and protects the root system from numerous detrimental impacts. Traditional mulching materials include pine needles, sawdust, peat material, compost, fallen dry leaves, and so on. This event serves a practical purpose as well as an aesthetic one; a tree pruned in this manner appears pretty attractive.
Maples require formative trimming over the first 3-4 years if you want to improve their ornamental qualities. Otherwise, twigs will grow at random, crowns will thicken, and the ventilation system will be interrupted. As a result, the leaves begin to dry up, plant resistance to illnesses decreases, and the danger of fungal infections increases. It is no longer required to prune the plant after 4-5 years of growth; it will now adopt its own permanent form. However, in the spring and autumn, dry, diseased, or damaged twigs and shoots that obstruct regular top ventilation should be removed.
When preparing maples for winter, keep in mind that they are not frost-resistant. In the winter, they may withstand temperatures as low as -20 °C if properly protected. Their rooting in a tub would be the greatest option: in the spring, we take them outside, and in the fall, we return them to the room. We consider preventative steps in the autumn after the leaves have fallen when wintering outside: we mulch the trunk circle with peat or compost (5-7 cm) and cover the open area with needles or burlap. Without cover, Russian maples will not survive the winter. Even after taking all required precautions, there is no guarantee that the plants will awaken in the spring – they are too old.
Methods of reproduction
There are two possible Japanese maple reproduction varieties.
It is not difficult to propagate maples from seed at home – one of the best methods is:
Soak the seeds for at least 2-3 hours.
We fill small (10×10 centimeter) planters with healthy soil.
We planted the seeds about 5 cm deep (each seed has its own hole).
cover with a film or a piece of glass;
We transfer it to a well-lit area away from direct sunshine.
We remove shelters every day for 2-3 hours (for ventilation);
We wait for the first leaves to appear before planting the seedlings in open soil (or in a tub).
Cutting propagation of Japanese maples is difficult and not always successful. In comparison to seeds, the survival rate with this method is quite low.
In the spring, we select sturdy, but immature, twigs with unformed bark.
We make circular incisions at their bases to allow the root system to develop.
A comparable incision is made slightly higher (2-3 cm).
We remove the thin skin that separates them.
Apply a root-forming hormone to the prepared area. They are available in powder or gel form.
To activate hormones, we fasten sphagnum (previously abundantly hydrated) moss to the treated area.
We seal the door with a piece of polyethylene. We store the workpiece in a cool, shaded area.
Roots begin to emerge through the bandage after 3-4 weeks.
We take off the bandage. The stalk from which the roots grew has been put in the ground.
Diseases and pests
When it comes to the treatment and prevention of illnesses in Japanese maples, we should notice that insect pests do not constitute a threat to them since maples do not appeal to them. The gallic tick, on the other hand, is a different story. The twigs shrivel and the leaves fade in hue. In these circumstances, the damaged parts are removed and the tree is treated with insecticides. Maple leaf weevils and whiteflies attack the trees less frequently.
Powdery mildew is the most damaging of the fungal adversaries. It is vital to plant it apart from the fruit and berry bushes to protect the Japanese “guest” from it. If an infection has occurred, fungicidal treatment must be repeated (2-3 times).
Application in landscape design
Our Japanese “visitors” are particularly popular in landscape design, not just on individual plots but also in urban park areas.
in original garden compositions;
in the form of an accentuated figure in front gardens;
in rockeries, mix borders, and alpine slides;
in decorative borders of reservoirs;
in Japanese gardens;
for growing in containers and pots and transporting them from one location to another
Maple pairs well with ivy, honeysuckle, clematis, azalea, magnolia, and hydrangea in a one-time arrangement.
At home, “Japanese” perfectly moisturizes and oxygenates the environment. It is a wonderful neighbor for other garden crops, shrubs, and cereals since its moderate root structure does not burden surrounding plants.