Interior design has more than five thousand years, during which time the basic concepts of architecture, furniture, and decor elements have constantly changed, forming entire schools and trends, references to which can be found in modern interior design. The history of interior styles exactly repeats the history of human culture itself. There are several common forms.
Initially, the appearance of interior design appeared from the desire of a person to decorate their place of residence. The history of interior design is associated with the development of artistic styles, influenced by cultural traditions and customs, as well as the availability of scientific inventions, events in the economy, politics, and social life.
The most complete gear of the insides is addressed in the way of life of Ancient Egypt (4500-633 BC). Numerous things have been made due to our time because of climatic conditions. Effectively in the most old-time of Egyptian culture, the fundamental types of the table, stool, sweat, and chest were worked out.
The antiquated Greeks (2000-30 BC) applied to the improvement of the principle Egyptian types of furniture their own longing for effortlessness and cautious elaboration of the structure. Traditional Greek orders and adornments were subsequently embraced by the Romans and afterward spread all through the socialized world.
The specialized expertise of the antiquated Romans (753 BC — 330 AD) was showed in their innovation of the curve, vault, and arch. The curve rule has profoundly affected the personality of the inside and furniture.
The Roman style of ornamentation acquired numerous themes from the Far and Near East: silk textures, hitched rugs, mosaics with run-of-the-mill oriental ornamentation of ribbon and rosettes, pictures of elephants, birds.
In the Middle Ages (fourth fifteenth hundreds of years), when European culture was encountering a general financial and social decay, there was a dismissal of the traditional Roman style.
The Gothic style, most completely communicated by the basilicas with their sharp curves, stained-glass windows, and strict images, shaded the entire arrangement of imaginative portrayals.
In any case, there are sure verifiable occasions that have characterized the current inside plan. The Italian (Renaissance (1400-1600)) was perhaps the main stage in the improvement of the inside plan. The craftsmen went to traditional structural orders and antique themes for motivation.
Furniture started to be beautified with three-dimensional rich carvings. The dividers were isolated into independent boards, improving them with frescoes. The floors were brightened utilizing the antiquated Roman practice of marble mosaics and tiles. Hence, the Renaissance turned into the support of the plan.
The second most significant phase of improvement throughout the entire existence of the inside plan traces all the way back to the Industrial Revolution. It turned into the following key stage in the advancement of the plan. The Industrial
Revolution is related to the development of the steam motor in England in the XVIII century. (second a large portion of), this period was the start of the democratization of the plan. As modern creation was created, different craftsmanship objects opened up to the working class, and the inside plan stopped being an advantage just for the rich.
A vital job throughout the entire existence of configuration was played by the Bauhaus School (Germany), where such well-known creators and specialists as Paul Klee, Piet Mondrian, and Walter Kandinsky contemplated.
The Bauhaus School was the first to bring to the front the standard of solidarity of practical reason and structure. Here, understudies were trained that structure is auxiliary to usefulness. What we see now on our inside has gotten a sort of continuation of the vital thoughts of the Bauhaus.
TV is additionally credited with the improvement of the historical backdrop of configuration, on account of the advocacy of it in different TV shows in Europe and the United States, which started during the 70s. In the personalities of the mass shopper around then, the inside lost its quality of secret and unavailability.
The finish of the XIX-start of the XX century was brimming with progressive occasions and defining moments in culture and craftsmanship. At one of these minutes, a style called «eclectic» appeared everywhere in the world.
Variance (from the Greek kleftiko – «chooser») is a blend of on a very basic level inverse parts from various styles in one creative picture. Diversity is a result of mass culture.
How did this style begin? Toward the start of the most recent century, the avant-gardists in their endeavors to make something new constantly» staggered » on something that had effectively been made by somebody previously.
It turned out to be certain that on the off chance that you follow the way of some acquiring and joining the current one, you can make something new and intriguing.
The historical backdrop of the inside has in excess of 5,000 years, during which time the fundamental ideas of engineering, furniture, beautiful components have continually changed, framing entire schools and patterns, references to which can be found in the current inside plan.
The history of inside plan styles is actually equivalent to the historical backdrop of the human culture. There are a few normal structures.
The traditional execution of the standards of this style can be found in the building landmarks of Ancient Greece and Rome. The principal highlight of the style plan in the antique style is the exacting balance of structures, terse plan of dividers, and furniture.
The inside, in light of severe mathematical extents, all should comply with the balance, and the fundamental law of design — the proportion of the more noteworthy lesser and the entire, where the greater part has a place with the entire as a little piece to the bigger.
So it is expected that the room will be elaborately separated into zones, where one will be the biggest, and the others will be partitioned into similar little zones.
This style of dispersion is still very famous in numerous cutting-edge insides and designs. Notwithstanding the extent, the style of improvement is significant — it should utilize sections and the nonappearance of limited entryway parcels.
The Gothic style dates back to the middle ages. Catholic churches are Prime examples of this type of design. The main characteristics of the style of Gothic decoration are such elements as narrow Windows, dark tones of furniture and walls, the use of stained glass, General style rigor, and conciseness.
Rooms made in the Gothic plan should be partitioned into a few more modest territories, for instance, one lounge will include: an amusement region, visitor, and feasting space. Wood and stone are utilized as the primary expressive materials. Components of this style incorporate embroidered works of art and pointed shapes.
The exacting and fairly bleak medieval times were supplanted by a lavish and rich recovery, which started to effectively direct its own guidelines in the plan of the house. The style of the Renaissance depended on the philosophical thought that the objective in life is joy.
This style of the inside is portrayed by the utilization of the accompanying parts: dividers covered with texture, woven artworks, cut furnishings, candelabra, marble floors, and a lot of plaster.
In the Baroque style, the shading plan is vital, which in the exemplary rendition is made in Burgundy, gold, and white tones. Ornate and Rococo are described by an expressive combination of roofs, dividers, and floors — one material and style of execution is utilized to enliven the whole room, so in Baroque plaster is utilized on the dividers, roof, and baseboards.
This pattern in the inside plan began in 1800. The principle includes that the craftsmanship Nouveau style is popular for its roundness of lines, practically complete absence of evenness, countless textures (both on the dividers and in such elaborate stylistic layout components as little pads, capes, window ornaments, furniture).
Furniture in this style ought to have adjusted corners and be made of wood. Breaking down the craftsmanship Nouveau style, you can take note of the restriction of the shading plan of the whole room.
Art Deco is replete with prints in the form of wide stripes, images of animals and plants, and the art Deco interior style is rich in such elements as geometric shapes as a leitmotif of the design of rooms, various figurines made of stone or metal.
This style of interior is characterized by conciseness and the use of modern stylistics. The main stylistic component in interior design is the clarity of lines, the poverty of colors, the use of metal, glass, and stone
Furniture in this style space should be strong, be made of similar material, have smooth bends. Furniture should be utilized distinctly for its expected reason, and I should assume the part of finishing rooms. The principal highlight of the style is a lot of gear and greatest usefulness.
Characteristic materials are natural, natural: wood, metal, stone. Natural colors, warm tones. The fabric is linen. The main thing is the proximity to nature or the feeling of closeness, in such an interior it is easy to breathe, there is a lot of light.
The eco-interior is characterized by minimalism.
Country style — rustic style. Simple shapes, unpainted Bali on the ceiling. It is important to feel a rustic kitchen, a bourgeois atmosphere — a tablecloth, curtains, bed linen made of simple «cheap» fabrics (chintz, linen, etc.).
Decorative elements — flowers, ruffles; drawing-a cage, pots, jars, bottles, bundles, barrels; objects of applied creativity and dishes made of clay, wood, or inexpensive glass, but necessarily «cute»
Pop art is translated from English as «popular art». It originated in America in the first half of the 20th century. Bright flashy colors, simple shapes, objects made of new materials, such as plastic, neon lighting, and a non-standard approach are characteristic. The main thing is brightness and novelty. Iconic names: Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol (famous portraits of Marilyn Monroe). The atmosphere of the USA of the 30-the 60s — gangsters, cinema, Hollywood stars, jazz, pop, Monroe, Elvis, the Beatles. The interior, made in the spirit of pop art, invariably attracts attention with unexpected shocking techniques. Textiles are bright, contrasting colors.
Shabby chic (vintage, Provencal style, French country) in the interior. Translated from English, the word «shebi» means «old», «worn out». Shabby chic partially intersects with the Provencal style in the interior, which, judging by the name, appeared in France. The vintage style had a great influence on the shebi chic style.
Shabby chic can be called» turned inside out » vintage since the interior decor suggests a kind of protest of excessive luxury. The windows are decorated with simple curtains with a floral pattern or heavy curtains of dark colors.
Ethnic style-stylization under the «exotic style». Ethno-Mexican, Moroccan, African, etc. Accordingly, helmets and objects are used that are typical for the area and the nationality under which the stylization is being done. For example, South African Ethno-masks, ebony, animal themes, skins, cult objects, etc. Color — bright colors. The ethnic style, or national style — is the style of a particular people, nationality, or tribe. This style is characterized by an easy transformation of the purpose of details: for example, a screen can replace doors. The textiles are bright with ornaments and symbols.
Loft style is a relatively new design solution that was born during the urban revival programs — in the process of turning old brick warehouses, factories, and schools into numerous dwellings without internal partitions, but with an abundance of air. Loft means «attic». In the United States, the upper floor of a retail space or warehouse is also called. The starting point for a future loft-style interior is the proximity of a modern texture, for example, glass, and steel, with available or salvaged material — restored floorboards or a bare brick wall. Textiles are concise.
Fusion is a combination of the incompatible: a Viennese chair, a light bulb from Philippe Starck, a hi-tech bathroom, and Empire doors. All this eclecticism is called «fusion». This style is now in fashion because, in our world outside of spaces and rules, it is much more difficult to observe the unity of style in design than to place an African ceramic vase brought from a trip on a thin-legged French table. And the eye is happy, and there is an excuse: fusion. The main postulate of fusion is that less is better than more. Things are designed to emphasize and shade each other, and not clutter up your square meters.
Designers define minimalism (from Lat. minimus — the smallest) as a modern interpretation of the ancient oriental style. It is believed that minimalism appeared in Europe already in the 60s and came from Japanese culture. The Japanese style is based on such concepts as «Wabi» — conscious simplicity, the charm of the ordinary (conditionally), and» Sabi » — natural beauty (conditionally). So, minimalism is characterized by simple lines and shapes, lack of decor, a lot of light, only the most necessary furniture, a two-or three-color palette, and the absence of internal partitions. Ascetic design, extreme rationality, and conciseness. Emptiness and light. Minimalism is the modeling of space and light using only the necessary objects. When there are few objects, each of them must be perfect, as well as the compositional solution of the interior. In the color design, one or two colors are usually taken as a basis, the favorite of which is white.